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JLPT N1 Grammar List

This is the list of grammar rules you need to study for the Japanese Language Proficiency Test level N1.

JLPT N1 Grammar List

Click on each grammar for more details.

あえて (aete): dare to

あくまでも (akumade mo): to the end, to the utmost degree

案の定 (an no jou): just as one thought

あらかじめ (arakajime): beforehand, in advance

あっての (atte no): to owe everything to

場合によっては (baai ni yotte wa): depending on the situation

ばこそ (ba koso): only because

ばそれまでだ (ba sore made da): if… then it’s over

べからず (bekarazu): must not, should not

べく (beku): in order to, should

べくもない (beku mo nai): can’t

びる (biru): seeming to be

ぶり (buri): style, manner

ぶる (buru): behaving like

だに (dani): even

だの~だの (dano~dano): and, and so forth

であれ~であれ (de are~de are): whether A or B

であれ/であろうと (de aru/de arou to): whoever/whatever/however

でも何でもない (demo nan demo nai): not in the least

でなくてなんだろう (denakute nan darou): must be, is definitely

(で)すら (de sura): even

ではあるまいか (dewa aru mai ka): I wonder if it’s not

ではあるまいし (dewa aru mai shi): it’s not like, it isn’t as if

ではすまない (dewa sumanai): it doesn’t end with just

どうにも~ない (dou nimo~nai): not … by any means

ふと (futo): accidentally, unexpectedly

がてら (gatera): on the same occasion

が早いか (ga hayai ka): as soon as

が最後 (ga saigo): once something occurs, something else happens

ごとき/ごとく (gotoki/gotoku): like, as if

ぐるみ (gurumi): together with

羽目になる (hame ni naru): to end up with (something unpleasant)

ひとつ (hitotsu): to give something a try

ほどのことはない (hodo no koto wa nai): not worth, no need to

ほかに~ない (hoka ni~nai): no other

ほうがましだ (hou ga mashi da): I would rather

いかなる (ikanaru): any kind of

いかんでは/いかんによっては (ikan dewa/ikan ni yotte wa): depending on

いかんによらず (ikan ni yorazu): regardless of

いかに (ikani): how

いかにも (ikanimo): indeed, really

いまだに (ima da ni): still, even now

いずれにせよ (izure nise yo): at any rate, in any case

じみた (jimita): to look like

限りだ (kagiri da): I feel so

かいもなく (kai mo naku): even though

か否か (ka ina ka): whether or not

可能性がある (kanousei ga aru): there’s a possibility

からある (kara aru): as much as, as many as

かれ~かれ (kare~kare): or

かたがた (katagata): while, for the purpose of

かたわら (katawara): while, at the same time

かつて (katsute): once, before

嫌いがある (kirai ga aru): to have a tendency to

きっての (kitte no): the most … of all

きりがない (kiri ga nai): there’s no end to

極まる/極まりない (kiwamaru/kiwamarinai): extremely

極めて (kiwamete): extremely, exceedingly

ことだし (koto dashi): because, since

ことごとく (koto gotoku): altogether, entirely

ことなしに (koto nashi ni): without doing something

ことのないよう (koto no nai you): so as not to

こととて (kototote): because, since

くらいなら (kurai nara): rather than

くらいのものだ (kurai no mono da): only

までだ (made da): only

までもない (made mo nai): it’s not necessary to

まじき (majiki): should not, must not

ままに (mama ni): to do as

まみれ (mamire): to be covered in

まるっきり (marukkiri): totally, completely

めく (meku): to show signs of

もはや (mohaya): already, no longer

も顧みず/を顧みず (mo kaerimizu/o kaerimizu): regardless of, despite

もしないで (mo shinaide): without even doing

もので (mono de): because, for that reason

ものを (mono o): I wish, if only

ものと思われる (mono to omowareru): to think, to suppose

ものとして (mono toshite): to assume, to suppose

もさることながら (mo saru koto nagara): not only… but also

もしくは (moshikuwa): or, otherwise

ながらに/ながらの (nagara ni/nagara no): while, during

ないではおかない/ずにはおかない (nai dewa okanai/zu niwa okanai): will definitely, cannot not

ないではすまない/ずにはすまない (nai dewa sumanai/zu niwa sumanai): must

ないまでも (nai made mo): even if something isn’t done

ないものか (nai mono ka): can’t we…?, can’t I…?

ないものでもない (nai mono demo nai): (something) is not entirely impossible

ないとも限らない (nai tomo kagiranai): might

なくして (nakushite): without

何しろ (nani shiro): in any case, as you know

なしに (nashi ni): without

ならでは (nara dewa): uniquely applying to

ならいざしらず (nara iza shirazu): I don’t know about A, but B

なり (nari): as soon as

なり~なり (nari~nari): or

なりに/なりの (nari ni/nari no): in one’s own way or style

なりとも (naritomo): even a little, at least

なるべく (narubeku): as much as possible

に値する (ni atai suru): to be worth, to deserve

にあたらない (ni ataranai): it’s not worth, there’s no need to

にあって (ni atte): at, during, in the condition of

にひきかえ (ni hikikae): in contrast to

に至るまで (ni itaru made): until, as far as

に至っては (ni itatte wa): as for, when it comes to

に言わせれば (ni iwasereba): if you ask, if one may say

にかかっている (ni kakatte iru): to depend on

にかたくない (ni katakunai): it’s not hard to

にまつわる (ni matsuwaru): to be related to


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にもほどがある (nimo hodo ga aru): to have a limit, to go too far

にもまして (ni momashite): more than, above

に則って (ni nottotte): in accordance with

に先駆けて (ni saki gakete): to be the first

にしたって (ni shitatte): even, even if

にして (ni shite): only, in (time span)

に即して (ni sokushite): in keeping with

にたえる/にたえない (ni taeru/ni taenai): can/can’t do something

に足る/に足りる (ni taru/ni tariru): to be enough, to be worthy of

に足りない (ni tarinai): to be not worth

に照らして (ni terashite): in comparison with, according to

にとどまらず (ni todomarazu): not limited to

には及ばない (niwa oyobanai): there’s no need to

によらず (ni yorazu): regardless of

んばかりに (n bakari ni): as if, as though

んがため (n ga tame): in order to

の至り (no itari): utmost

の極み (no kiwami): utmost

のみか (nomika): not only… but also

のなんのって (no nan no tte): extremely

を踏まえて (o fumaete): based on

を経て (o hete): through, after, via

をいいことに (o ii koto ni): to take advantage of

を限りに (o kagiri ni): starting from

を兼ねて (o kanete): also for the purpose of

を皮切りに (o kawakiri ni): starting with

を機に (o ki ni): as an opportunity to

を禁じえない (o kinjienai): can’t help but

をものともせず (o monotomo sezu): in defiance of

をもって (o motte) – 1: by means of

をもって (o motte) – 2: at the time

をおいて (o oite): other than, without

を余儀なくされる (o yogi naku sareru): to be forced to do something

をよそに (o yoso ni): despite

思いをする (omoi o suru): to feel

折に (ori ni): when, on the occasion

およそ (oyoso): totally, (not) at all

さもないと (samonaito): otherwise, else, if not so

さぞ (sazo): I’m sure, I’m certain

始末だ (shimatsu da): end up, in the end

そばから (soba kara): as soon as

さも (samo): truly, really

それなりに (sore nari ni): as it is, in its own way

そうにもない (sou nimo nai): impossible, unlikely

ただ~のみだ (tada~nomi da): can do nothing but

た拍子に (ta hyoushi ni): the instant

ためしがない (tameshi ga nai): (something) is never the case

たりとも (taritomo): (not) even, (not) any

た瞬間に (ta shunkan ni): the moment

てっきり (tekkiri): surely, certainly

てからというもの (te kara to iu mono): after, since

てかなわない (te kanawanai): can’t stand, unable to

てまで (te made): even

てみせる (te miseru): I’ll definitely

てもどうにもならない (temo dou nimo naranai): it’s no use

ても始まらない (temo hajimaranai): it’s no use

ても差し支えない (temo sashitsukaenai): can, it’s okay if

てしかるべきだ (te shikaru beki da): should

ってば (tteba): I said, I told you to

てやまない (te yamanai): always, never stop

と相まって (to aimatte): together with

とあれば (to areba): if, if it’s the case that

とあって (to atte): because of

とばかりに (to bakari ni): as if, as though

といえども (to ie domo): even, even if

といい~といい (to ii~to ii): and, or

といったらない (to ittara nai): very, extremely

という (to iu): all, every

というか (to iu ka): or, or more precisely

というか~というか (to iu ka~to iu ka): (I’m not sure if it’s) A or B

というところだ/といったところだ (to iu tokoro da/to itta tokoro da): approximately, about

というもの (to iu mono): during a period of time

というわけだ (to iu wake da): this means

というわけではない (to iu wake dewa nai): it’s not that, it doesn’t mean that

といわず (to iwazu): not just, both

ときたら (tokitara): when it comes to, concerning

ときている (to kite iru): because

ところがある (tokoro ga aru): there is

ところから (tokoro kara): from the fact that

とみられる (to mirareru): to be regarded as, to be expected to

とみるや (to miru ya): at the sight of, upon seeing

ともなく (tomonaku): to do something without thinking about it

ともなると/ともなれば (tomo naru to/tomo nareba): when, once (something happens)

ともすれば (tomo sureba): apt to, prone to

と思いきや (to omoikiya): I thought

とりわけ (toriwake): especially

とされる (to sareru): is considered

とっさに (tossa ni): at once, right away

としたって/としたところで (to shitatte/to shita tokoro de): even if

として~ない (toshite~nai): not even one

とて (tote): even if, even though

とても~ない (totemo~nai): cannot possibly

とは (towa): (indicates word or phrase being defined)

とはいえ (towaie): nonetheless, although

とはいうものの (towa iu mono no): having said that, be that as it may

つ~つ (tsu~tsu): (indicates two contrasting actions)

はおろか (wa oroka): let alone, not to mention

はさておき (wa sateoki): setting aside

や否や (ya ina ya): the moment that, as soon as

やしない (yashinai): not (emphatic negative)

(よ)うが/(よ)うと (you ga/you to): no matter how/what

(よ)うが~まいが/(よ)うと~まいと (you ga~mai ga/you to~mai to): whether or not

(よ)うか~まいか (you ka~mai ka): whether or not

(よ)うものなら (you mono nara): if one chooses to

(よ)うにも~ない (you nimo~nai): even if one tries to do something, it can’t be done

ようによっては (you ni yotte wa): depending on

ゆえに (yue ni): therefore, consequently

ざる (zaru): not, -un

ずじまい (zu jimai): never

ずくめ (zukume): entirely, completely

ずとも (zu tomo): even without doing

See also: JLPT N1 Vocabulary List


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