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JLPT N1 Grammar List

This is a list of 219 grammar rules you need to study for the Japanese Language Proficiency Test level N1.

JLPT N1 Grammar List

Click on each grammar for more details.

あえて (aete): dare to

あくまでも (akumade mo): to the end, to the utmost degree

案の定 (an no jou): just as one thought

あらかじめ (arakajime): beforehand, in advance

あっての (atte no): to owe everything to

場合によっては (baai ni yotte wa): depending on the situation

ばこそ (ba koso): only because

ばそれまでだ (ba sore made da): if… then it’s over

べからず (bekarazu): must not, should not

べく (beku): in order to, should

べくもない (beku mo nai): can’t

びる (biru): seeming to be

ぶり (buri): style, manner

ぶる (buru): behaving like

だに (dani): even

だの~だの (dano~dano): and, and so forth

であれ~であれ (de are~de are): whether A or B

であれ/であろうと (de aru/de arou to): whoever/whatever/however

でも何でもない (demo nan demo nai): not in the least

でなくてなんだろう (denakute nan darou): must be, is definitely

(で)すら (de sura): even

ではあるまいか (dewa aru mai ka): I wonder if it’s not

ではあるまいし (dewa aru mai shi): it’s not like, it isn’t as if

ではすまない (dewa sumanai): it doesn’t end with just

どうにも~ない (dou nimo~nai): not … by any means

ふと (futo): accidentally, unexpectedly

がてら (gatera): on the same occasion

が早いか (ga hayai ka): as soon as

が最後 (ga saigo): once something occurs, something else happens

ごとき/ごとく (gotoki/gotoku): like, as if

ぐるみ (gurumi): together with

羽目になる (hame ni naru): to end up with (something unpleasant)

ひとつ (hitotsu): to give something a try

ほどのことはない (hodo no koto wa nai): not worth, no need to

ほかに~ない (hoka ni~nai): no other

ほうがましだ (hou ga mashi da): I would rather

いかなる (ikanaru): any kind of

いかんでは/いかんによっては (ikan dewa/ikan ni yotte wa): depending on

いかんによらず (ikan ni yorazu): regardless of

いかに (ikani): how

いかにも (ikanimo): indeed, really

いまだに (ima da ni): still, even now

いずれにせよ (izure nise yo): at any rate, in any case

じみた (jimita): to look like

限りだ (kagiri da): I feel so

かいもなく (kai mo naku): even though

か否か (ka ina ka): whether or not

可能性がある (kanousei ga aru): there’s a possibility

からある (kara aru): as much as, as many as

かれ~かれ (kare~kare): or

かたがた (katagata): while, for the purpose of

かたわら (katawara): while, at the same time

かつて (katsute): once, before

嫌いがある (kirai ga aru): to have a tendency to

きっての (kitte no): the most … of all

きりがない (kiri ga nai): there’s no end to

極まる/極まりない (kiwamaru/kiwamarinai): extremely

極めて (kiwamete): extremely, exceedingly

ことだし (koto dashi): because, since

ことごとく (koto gotoku): altogether, entirely

ことなしに (koto nashi ni): without doing something

ことのないよう (koto no nai you): so as not to

こととて (kototote): because, since

くらいなら (kurai nara): rather than

くらいのものだ (kurai no mono da): only

までだ (made da): only

までもない (made mo nai): it’s not necessary to

まじき (majiki): should not, must not

ままに (mama ni): to do as

まみれ (mamire): to be covered in

まるっきり (marukkiri): totally, completely

めく (meku): to show signs of

もはや (mohaya): already, no longer

も顧みず/を顧みず (mo kaerimizu/o kaerimizu): regardless of, despite

もしないで (mo shinaide): without even doing

もので (mono de): because, for that reason

ものを (mono o): I wish, if only

ものと思われる (mono to omowareru): to think, to suppose

ものとして (mono toshite): to assume, to suppose

もさることながら (mo saru koto nagara): not only… but also

もしくは (moshikuwa): or, otherwise

ながらに/ながらの (nagara ni/nagara no): while, during

ないではおかない/ずにはおかない (nai dewa okanai/zu niwa okanai): will definitely, cannot not

ないではすまない/ずにはすまない (nai dewa sumanai/zu niwa sumanai): must

ないまでも (nai made mo): even if something isn’t done

ないものか (nai mono ka): can’t we…?, can’t I…?

ないものでもない (nai mono demo nai): (something) is not entirely impossible

ないとも限らない (nai tomo kagiranai): might

なくして (nakushite): without

何しろ (nani shiro): in any case, as you know

なしに (nashi ni): without

ならでは (nara dewa): uniquely applying to

ならいざしらず (nara iza shirazu): I don’t know about A, but B

なり (nari): as soon as

なり~なり (nari~nari): or

なりに/なりの (nari ni/nari no): in one’s own way or style

なりとも (naritomo): even a little, at least

なるべく (narubeku): as much as possible

に値する (ni atai suru): to be worth, to deserve

にあたらない (ni ataranai): it’s not worth, there’s no need to

にあって (ni atte): at, during, in the condition of

にひきかえ (ni hikikae): in contrast to

に至るまで (ni itaru made): until, as far as

に至っては (ni itatte wa): as for, when it comes to

に言わせれば (ni iwasereba): if you ask, if one may say

にかかっている (ni kakatte iru): to depend on

にかたくない (ni katakunai): it’s not hard to

にまつわる (ni matsuwaru): to be related to


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にもほどがある (nimo hodo ga aru): to have a limit, to go too far

にもまして (ni momashite): more than, above

に則って (ni nottotte): in accordance with

に先駆けて (ni saki gakete): to be the first

にしたって (ni shitatte): even, even if

にして (ni shite): only, in (time span)

に即して (ni sokushite): in keeping with

にたえる/にたえない (ni taeru/ni taenai): can/can’t do something

に足る/に足りる (ni taru/ni tariru): to be enough, to be worthy of

に足りない (ni tarinai): to be not worth

に照らして (ni terashite): in comparison with, according to

にとどまらず (ni todomarazu): not limited to

には及ばない (niwa oyobanai): there’s no need to

によらず (ni yorazu): regardless of

んばかりに (n bakari ni): as if, as though

んがため (n ga tame): in order to

の至り (no itari): utmost

の極み (no kiwami): utmost

のみか (nomika): not only… but also

のなんのって (no nan no tte): extremely

を踏まえて (o fumaete): based on

を経て (o hete): through, after, via

をいいことに (o ii koto ni): to take advantage of

を限りに (o kagiri ni): starting from

を兼ねて (o kanete): also for the purpose of

を皮切りに (o kawakiri ni): starting with

を機に (o ki ni): as an opportunity to

を禁じえない (o kinjienai): can’t help but

をものともせず (o monotomo sezu): in defiance of

をもって (o motte) – 1: by means of

をもって (o motte) – 2: at the time

をおいて (o oite): other than, without

を余儀なくされる (o yogi naku sareru): to be forced to do something

をよそに (o yoso ni): despite

思いをする (omoi o suru): to feel

折に (ori ni): when, on the occasion

およそ (oyoso): totally, (not) at all

さもないと (samonaito): otherwise, else, if not so

さぞ (sazo): I’m sure, I’m certain

始末だ (shimatsu da): end up, in the end

そばから (soba kara): as soon as

さも (samo): truly, really

それなりに (sore nari ni): as it is, in its own way

そうにもない (sou nimo nai): impossible, unlikely

ただ~のみだ (tada~nomi da): can do nothing but

た拍子に (ta hyoushi ni): the instant

ためしがない (tameshi ga nai): (something) is never the case

たりとも (taritomo): (not) even, (not) any

た瞬間に (ta shunkan ni): the moment

てっきり (tekkiri): surely, certainly

てからというもの (te kara to iu mono): after, since

てかなわない (te kanawanai): can’t stand, unable to

てまで (te made): even

てみせる (te miseru): I’ll definitely

てもどうにもならない (temo dou nimo naranai): it’s no use

ても始まらない (temo hajimaranai): it’s no use

ても差し支えない (temo sashitsukaenai): can, it’s okay if

てしかるべきだ (te shikaru beki da): should

ってば (tteba): I said, I told you to

てやまない (te yamanai): always, never stop

と相まって (to aimatte): together with

とあれば (to areba): if, if it’s the case that

とあって (to atte): because of

とばかりに (to bakari ni): as if, as though

といえども (to ie domo): even, even if

といい~といい (to ii~to ii): and, or

といったらない (to ittara nai): very, extremely

という (to iu): all, every

というか (to iu ka): or, or more precisely

というか~というか (to iu ka~to iu ka): (I’m not sure if it’s) A or B

というところだ/といったところだ (to iu tokoro da/to itta tokoro da): approximately, about

というもの (to iu mono): during a period of time

というわけだ (to iu wake da): this means

というわけではない (to iu wake dewa nai): it’s not that, it doesn’t mean that

といわず (to iwazu): not just, both

ときたら (tokitara): when it comes to, concerning

ときている (to kite iru): because

ところがある (tokoro ga aru): there is

ところから (tokoro kara): from the fact that

とみられる (to mirareru): to be regarded as, to be expected to

とみるや (to miru ya): at the sight of, upon seeing

ともなく (tomonaku): to do something without thinking about it

ともなると/ともなれば (tomo naru to/tomo nareba): when, once (something happens)

ともすれば (tomo sureba): apt to, prone to

と思いきや (to omoikiya): I thought

とりわけ (toriwake): especially

とされる (to sareru): is considered

とっさに (tossa ni): at once, right away

としたって/としたところで (to shitatte/to shita tokoro de): even if

として~ない (toshite~nai): not even one

とて (tote): even if, even though

とても~ない (totemo~nai): cannot possibly

とは (towa): (indicates word or phrase being defined)

とはいえ (towaie): nonetheless, although

とはいうものの (towa iu mono no): having said that, be that as it may

つ~つ (tsu~tsu): (indicates two contrasting actions)

はおろか (wa oroka): let alone, not to mention

はさておき (wa sateoki): setting aside

や否や (ya ina ya): the moment that, as soon as

やしない (yashinai): not (emphatic negative)

(よ)うが/(よ)うと (you ga/you to): no matter how/what

(よ)うが~まいが/(よ)うと~まいと (you ga~mai ga/you to~mai to): whether or not

(よ)うか~まいか (you ka~mai ka): whether or not

(よ)うものなら (you mono nara): if one chooses to

(よ)うにも~ない (you nimo~nai): even if one tries to do something, it can’t be done

ようによっては (you ni yotte wa): depending on

ゆえに (yue ni): therefore, consequently

ざる (zaru): not, -un

ずじまい (zu jimai): never

ずくめ (zukume): entirely, completely

ずとも (zu tomo): even without doing


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