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Learn JLPT N4 Grammar: Transitive & Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive Verb is a verb that does not require a direct object. Intransitive verbs usually indicate movement, change or emotion.

Transitive Verb is a verb that requires a direct object. It usually expresses an action that acts upon someone or something indicated by the direct object.

Verb pairs and example sentences:

開く (hiraku): to open, to undo, to unseal, to unfold
開ける (akeru): to open (door), to unwrap (parcel), to unlock

一度目を閉じてしまうと、開けることができなくなってしまった。
Once my eyes were closed, I couldn’t pry them open.
ichido me o tojite shimau to, akeru koto ga dekinaku natte shimatta.

集まる (atsumaru): to gather, to collect, to assemble
集める (atsumeru): to collect, to assemble, to gather

イツキがトレーから持ち物を集め始めた。
Itsuki started collecting his belongings from the tray.
itsuki ga toree kara mochimono o atsumehajimeta.

 

これほど教養人がおおぜい集まった会議は、世界中どこを探してもないだろう。
This conference must have gathered the most accomplished audience on earth.
kore hodo kyouyoujin ga oozei atsumatta kaigi wa, sekaijuu doko o sagashite mo nai darou.

預かる (azukaru): to look after, to take care of
預ける (azukeru): to give into custody, to entrust

できれば、あるものを預かってもらえないかと思ってね。
I was hoping you would consider looking after something for me.
dekireba, aru mono o azukatte moraenai ka to omotte ne.

散る (chiru): to fall, to scatter
散らす (chirasu): to scatter, to disperse, to spread

電車の中で読書をすると、人と騒音のせいで気が散ることが多い。
When reading on the train, I’m often distracted by people and noise.
densha no naka de dokusho o suru to, hito to souon no sei de ki ga chiru koto ga ooi.
***気が散る (ki ga chiru): to get distracted

出る (deru): to leave, to exit, to go out
出す (dasu): to take out, to get out, to put out

その人に電話してちょうだい。早く結果が出たら報酬をその倍にすると伝え。
Call him. Tell him I’ll give him double for fast results.
sono hito ni denwa shite choudai. hayaku kekka ga detara houshuu o sono bai ni suru to tsutae.

 

一度出してしまったものを、引っ込めることはできません。
You can’t put things back in the bottle.
ichido dashite shimatta mono o, hikkomeru koto wa dekimasen.

広がる (hirogaru): to spread out, to extend, to stretch
広げる (hirogeru): to spread, to extend, to expand

火事は住宅地に広がる前に消し止められた。
The fire was brought under control before it could spread to a residential area.
kaji wa juutakuchi ni hirogaru mae ni keshitomerareta.

生かす (ikasu): to let live, to keep alive, to revive
生きる (ikiru): to live, to exist, to make a living

気楽に生きろと自分に言い聞かせるためにはめているんだよ。
I wear it to remind me to slow down and take life less seriously.
kiraku ni ikiro to jibun ni iikikaseru tame ni hamete irun da yo.

入る (iru): to get in, to go in, to come in
入れる (ireru): to put in, to let in, to take in

どうにかこうにかやってはいても、生活費と、子どもを良い学校に入れられるかは、気に掛かります。
I can just about to manage, but I’m worried about the cost of living and getting my kids into a good school.
dounika kounika yatte wa ite mo, seikatsuhi to, kodomo o yoi gakkou ni irerareru ka wa, ki ni kakarimasu.
***気に掛かる (ki ni kakaru): to weigh on one’s mind, to be worried about something

変わる (kawaru): to change, to be transformed, to be altered
変える (kaeru): to change, to alter, to transform

アメリカでは、名前を法的に変えるのはすごく簡単なんだ。
In the U.S., it’s very easy to legally change your name.
amerika de wa, namae o houteki ni kaeru no wa sugoku kantan nan da.

乾く (kawaku): to get dry
乾かす (kawasu): to dry (clothes)

のどが乾いたので僕は一人でビールを飲んだ。
I was thirsty, so I had a whole beer to myself.
nodo ga kawaita node boku wa hitori de biiru o nonda.

切れる (kireru): to break, to snap, to be cut
切る (kiru): to cut, to sever, to turn off, to hang up

電話を切る前に、週末に一緒にゴルフをする約束をした。
Before we hang up, we set a golf date for the weekend.
denwa o kiru mae ni, shuumatsu ni issho ni gorufu o suru yakusoku o shita.

聞こえる (kikoeru): to be heard, to be audible
聞く (kiku): to hear, to listen, to ask, to enquire

わからないわ。あそこにいる店員さんに聞いてみるわね。
I’m not sure. Let me ask the store clerk over there.
wakaranai wa. asoko ni iru ten’insan ni kiite miru wa ne.

加わる (kuwawaru): to be added to, to be appended
加える (kuwaeru): to add, to sum up, to append

このアプリは、ぱっとしない写真に生き生きとした色彩を加えられる。
This app can give a dull photo more vivid colors.
kono apuri wa, pattoshinai shashin ni ikiiki toshita shikisai o kuwaerareru.

見える (mieru): to be seen, to be in sight
見る (miru): to see, to look, to watch

スクリーンの前に、かなり身長で瘦せた男の影が見えた。
In front of the screen, a very tall and lanky silhouette faced me.
sukuriin no mae ni, kanari shinchou de yaseta otoko no kage ga mieta.

見つかる (mitsukaru): to be found, to be discovered
見つける (mitsukeru): to discover, to find


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住所がわかっていても、その場所を見つけるのは、まったく別の挑戦になるんだ。
Even if you have the address, finding it is a whole different challenge.
juusho ga wakatte ite mo, sono basho o mitsukeru no wa, mattaku betsu no chousen ni narun da.

 

いったい人はわたしに何を求めているんだろう?答らしい答は見つからなかった。
What did others want from me? I could never find the answers.
ittai hito wa watashi ni nani o motomete irun darou. kotae rashii kotae wa mitsukaranakatta.

戻る (modoru): to turn back, to return, to go back
戻す (modosu): to put back, to return, to give back

ナカツが戻って来るまでに、私たちはもうすっかり元気になり、お腹も空いてきた。
By the time that Nakatsu returned we were feeling strong and hungry.
nakatsu ga modotte kuru made ni, watashitachi wa mou sukkari genki ni nari, onaka mo suite kita.

漏れる (moreru): to leak out, to escape, to come through
漏らす (morasu): to let leak, to reveal

千葉は小さく含み笑いを漏らした。
Chiba chuckled quietly.
chiba wa chiisaku fukumi warai o morashita.

逃れる (nogareru): to escape
逃す (nogasu): to let get away, to set free

地震の後、誰もがその町から直ちに逃れようとした。
After the earthquake, everyone tried to flee the town at once.
jishin no ato, daremo ga sono machi kara tadachi ni nogareyou to shita.

起こる (okoru): to occur, to happen
起こす (okosu): to raise, to wake, to cause

もしもおおぜいの人々が同じ思考に集中しはじめたら、何が起こる?
What happens if many people start focusing on the same thought?
moshimo oozei no hitobito ga onaji shikou ni shuuchuu shihajimetara, nani ga okoru.

遅れる (okureru): to be late, to be delayed
遅らす (okurasu): to retard, to delay

仕事が遅れたので、週末も働かなければならなかった。
Since I got behind in my work, I had to work over the weekend.
shigoto ga okureta node, shuumatsu mo hatarakanakereba naranakatta.

教わる (osowaru): to be taught, to learn from
教える (oshieru): to teach, to instruct

ヒデキのどこが悪いのかを教えてください。
Please tell me what’s wrong with Hideki.
hideki no doko ga warui no ka o oshiete kudasai.

終わる (owaru): to finish, to end, to close
終える (oeru): to finish, to graduate

今日一日が終わるまでに、あなたが助けを必要とするようなことがありませんように。
I only hope you will not need rescuing before the day is out.
kyou ichinichi ga owaru made ni, anata ga tasuke o hitsuyou to suru you na koto ga arimasen you ni.

閉まる (shimaru): to be shut, to be closed
閉める (shimeru): to close, to shut

私は部屋に足を踏み入れると、背後でドアが閉まった。
I went in, and the door closed behind me.
watashi wa heya ni ashi o fumiireru to, haigo de doa ga shimatta.

備わる (sonawaru): to be furnished with, to be provided with
備える (sonaeru): to furnish, to provide for

世界でもっとも大きく、もっとも進んだテクノロジーを備えた博物館は、世界でもっとも秘密の多い博物館でもある。
The world’s largest and most technologically advanced museum is also one of the world’s best kept secrets.
sekai de mottomo ookiku, mottomo susunda tekunorojii o sonaeta hakubutsukan wa, sekai de mottomo himitsu no ooi hakubutsukan demo aru.

進む (susumu): to advance, to go forward, to precede
進める (susumeru): to advance, to promote, to hasten

嫌なことがあっても、反省することがあっても、僕は忘れて次に進みます!
Even if something bad happens, even if I need to reflect on something, I’ll just forget about it and keep going!
iya na koto ga atte mo, hansei suru koto ga atte mo, boku wa wasurete tsugi ni susumimasu.

 

男は歩を進めた。一歩ごとに、その体が大きくなっていくように見えた。
The man kept moving forward, seeming to grow taller with every step.
otoko wa ho o susumeta. ippo goto ni, sono karada ga ookiku natte iku you ni mieta.
***歩を進める (ho o susumeru): to make progress, to step forward

足りる (tariru): to be sufficient, to be enough
足す (tasu): to add, to top up

私の理解力が足りないのかもしれないけれど、あなたの言いたいことがわからない。
I apologize if I seem naive, but I’m missing your point.
watashi no rikairyoku ga tarinai no kamoshirenai kedo, anata no iitai koto ga wakaranai.

立つ (tatsu): to stand, to rise, to stand up
立てる (tateru): to stand up, to put up, to make (noise)

彼女はテーブルの前で立ち止ると、一枚の紙を手に取り、音を立てて真ん中から破った。
She paused at a table, picked up a sheet of paper, and ripped it loudly in half.
kanojo wa teeburu no mae de tachidomaru to, ichimai no kami o te ni tori, oto o tatete mannaka kara yabutta.

取る (toru): to take, to pick up, to harvest
取れる (toreru): to come off, to be removed

まだ夏休み取っていなかったよね?
You haven’t taken a summer vacation yet, have you?
mada natsuyasumi totte inakatta yo ne.

浮かぶ (ukabu): to float, to be suspended
浮かべる (ukaberu): to float, to express, to look

男は薄ら笑いを浮かべ、感心したようにうなずいてみせた。
The man smirked and gave an impressed nod.
otoko wa usurawarai o ukabe, kanshin shita you ni unazuite miseta.

破れる (yabureru): to get torn, to tear, to be broken off
破る (yaburu): to tear, to break, to destroy

彼がこのペースを保てれば、世界記録を破るだろう。
If he can keep up this pace, he will break the world record.
kare ga kono peesu o tamotereba, sekai kiroku o yaburu darou.

 

See also:

Volitional form


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Learn JLPT N4 Grammar: Volitional Form of Verbs
Learn JLPT N4 Grammar: てある (te aru)